Ghazal and his wife Tarkkenaz live for about half the year near Koohmare Sorkhi, a village approximately 50km from Shiraz, moving 200km north near the city of Kazerun when the weather gets cooler. Like many Qashqai, they refuse to abandon their traditional lifestyle and continue to live the way their ancestors have for centuries.
Now retired, Ghazal was a Farsi teacher for nomadic children for 30 years. He believes this work is vital as it allows the Qashqai to preserve their independence and culture. But it's become increasingly hard to find teachers who will travel with the children. Few nomadic people are qualified, and those from the cities and villages and are not used to the lifestyle. As the tribe runs out of teachers, either the children don't attend school or, if their parents can afford it, are sent to schools in town, where they usually choose to stay afterwards. (Credit: Pascal Mannaerts)
Assimilation politics over the past few decades have pushed a lot of Qashqai to settle in cities or villages, while growing urban centres are encroaching on their grazing lands. But their nomadic lifestyle has created a strong cohesion and solidarity within Qashqai families and their extended community.
Ghazal's aunt, Madina, lost her husband a few years ago and her family has supported her since his death. She now travels with them across the country and finds it inconceivable to abandon the nomadic way of life.
"I was born a nomad, this is how I later raised my children. We have always lived this way, and although our life can be considered as very basic by others, this is the way we want to remain. I have never lived in a city and I would never move there. My soul is here". (Credit: Pascal Mannaerts)
For centuries, the Qashqai have been renowned across Iran for their pile carpets and other wool products, often referred to as "Shiraz" as this is their major marketplace. The wool produced in the mountains and valleys near Shiraz is exceptionally soft and beautiful and takes a deeper colour than wool from other parts of Iran. Today, Tarkkenaz and other women in her family still produce these traditional wool products, with traders coming regularly to camp to buy them. (Credit: Pascal Mannaerts)
When I was staying with Ghazal and Tarkkenaz, a Qashqai wedding was taking place in Koohmare Sorkhi. The groom invited me into the tent and allowed me to take a picture of the couple, an incredibly special moment as the he told me that this was the first time he'd spoken to a foreigner. (Credit: Pascal Mannaerts)
The Qashqai have always claimed a very specific identity, and their traditions are markedly different than those of mainstream Iranian society. Although they follow Muslim wedding traditions, these celebrations are also an opportunity to perpetuate their cultural heritage through dances, parades, battle shows and traditional dress. They are also occasions for Qashqai nomads to come together, as they often live far from each other in very remote areas. (Credit: Pascal Mannaerts)